Remainder of the Sarmatian Sea, unique in the world, the Black Sea is one of Romania’s greatest riches. Besides Romania, the Black Sea is also neighbor to Russia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Turkey and Georgia. Through the Cherci Strait one can get to the Azov Sea, through the Bosfor Strait to the Marmara Sea, and through the Dardanele strait to the Aegean Sea and then to the Mediterranean.
Having a relatively low salinity in the Romanian seaside area, the Black Sea is almost free of the vertical marine currents and has only horizontal ones. This is possible because of the contact with the planetary ocean, which is relatively small and is ensured exclusively through the line Bosfor Strait, Marmara Sea, Dardanele Strait.
The Black Sea beaches are subject to a continuous erosion process. The Japanese Agency for International Cooperation made a warning in 2007 on the fact that, within 20 years, because of the erosion, the beach in the Romanian area of the Black Sea could disappear. According to the studies, the beach narrowing rate in line with the resorts on the Romanian seaside is around 0.7 m/year. During the last ten years, the beach of the Saturn and Mangalia resorts has decreased by 8 m.
According to the Romanian authorities, the entire south part of the seaside will be rehabilitated by 2020.
Located in the Adamclisi commune of Dobrogea, approximately 100 km to the west of the seaside, the archeological complex is one of the most valuable ancient roman monuments on the territory of our country. Here you can admire the ruins of the Triumphal Monument “Tropaem Traiani” and the vestiges of the Tropaem Traiani fortress.
The complex was built to commemorate the victory of the emperor Traian over Dacians.
In Dobrudja, it is worth to make a stop at the vineyards in this area. The most important are the Murfatlar vineyard, that produces the famous and aromatic wine of the same name, and the Sarica Niculitel vineyard.
The Celic-Dere Monastery (Slava Cercheza) is located 22 km from Isaccea and was build between 1841 and 1844 by the Romanian and Russian monks. A medieval art and cult objects collection is kept in the Monastery. An icon brought from the Athos mountain is extremely precious.
The Niculitel Basilica is 15 km away from Isaccea and was built during the reign of King Valerius, after 370 A.D.
The Cocos Monastery is in the Niculitel commune and was built in 1833. According to the historic documents, the monastery was built by the Visarion, Gheratie and Isaia monks.
The Saon Monastery is in the same Niculitel commune and it was built by monks in 1846. The enclosure wall, the old church and the oratory are preserved and date bake to 1881.
Erected 2600 years ago, the Histria town is one of the oldest urban settlements of Romania. Histria, located on the Sinoe lake strand, was brought to light starting with 1914, by the digging of the great historian and archeologist Vasile Parvan. Here you can admire the Greek relics of the 7th-6th centuries B.C.
Mangalia - Callatis
The Mangalia town of today is the former Callatis, the third Greek colony at Pontus Euxin, built during the 7th-6th centuries B.C., together with Histria and Tomis (Constanta nowadays).
In Greek, Callatis means “the most beautiful”. It was the seaside citadel where many artistic activities used to be carried out. Here is the oldest Latin document in all the SE Europe.
It’s the resort-town located in the south part of the Romanian seaside, and besides the accommodation places for those who come here to enjoy the sea waves, people come here for balneal tourism as well, due to the sludge of the Techirghiol lake.
Constanta - Tomis
Constanta is the second town of Romania, after Bucharest, having 310,471 inhabitants.
The town was founded during the 7th-5th centuries B.C., after the Greek colonization of the Black Sea, also known as Pontus Euxin. The Greeks called it Tomis. The flourishing period of the town was the 3rd century B.C.
A part of the former ancient town still exists, covered by the sea, in line with the present Casino of Constanta. In the 1st century A.D., Tomisul was occupied by Romanians. It’s the place where the Roman poet Ovid stood in exile for 8 years. Then followed a period of barbarian invasions: Huns, Slavs, Bulgarians, Petchenegs, Cumans, Tartars and Turks. Tomis is mentioned in the Byzantine documentary sources as “Constantia”, a name given by Constantine the Great (274-337) in honor of his sister Constantia. Tomis is not only an important harbor, but also a Christian religious center.
It remains an important harbor during the 10th-13th centuries as well, flourishing under the influence of the Genovese people. These latter built here the Genovese Lighthouse.
Starting with the 15th century until the end of the 19th century, Constanta was part of the Ottoman Empire. The population of the city decreased and, from the important harbor it used to be, it remained a mere village of Greek and Turkish fishermen, a small harbor for stops in case of storms.
After the Independence War of 1877-1878, the area between the Danube and the Black Sea returned to Romania. It was the moment as of which Constanta began flourishing.
Between 1890 and 1895 the Cernavoda Bridge was built by Anghel Saligny, a bridge that can still be seen. During the same period, the Romanian Maritime Service was created and marine lines were open to Istanbul, Piraeus and Rotterdam.
After the First World War, Constanta continued to develop. Now, beside Romanians, there are numerous communities of Turks, Tartars, Armenians, Aromanians and Greeks here.
Charles Mosque or the Great Mosque of Constanta
Address: 5 Arhiepiscopiei street (Ovidiu Square)
It’s a Muslim cult place, an architectural monument built between 1910 and 1912. The Mosque was built on the initiative of King Charles I, as a tribute paid to the Muslim community of the city, based on the plans of Eng. Gogu Constantinescu. Made of concrete, in the Egyptian-Byzantine style, with some intermingled Romanian architectural motifs, the cult place was inspired by the Konya Mosque of Anatolia, Turkey. It has a minaret in the Moor style, 47 m high. The construction is also known as the “Mahmud II Mosque” and it was erected instead of the Mahmudia Mosque dating back to 1822.
Address: on the town’s cliff
Built between 1858 and 1860, being approximately 8 m high, the Lighthouse was erected to remind of the Genovese merchants who lived in the Constanta area in the 13th century.
Address: Independentei Square
It was achieved by the Italian sculptor Ettore Ferrari in 1887 and it represents the great poet Ovid, exiled in Tomis during his last years. The sculptor Ettore Ferrari is the one who created the statue of Abraham Lincoln of New York, the monument of Garibaldi of Rovigo – Italy, the statue of Giordano Bruno of Rome and the statue of Ion Eliade Radulescu of Bucharest.
Casino of Constanta
Address: Elisabeta Boulevard
Built in 1909, the Casino was inaugurated in August 1910. The building in the “Art Nouveau” style was achieved based on the plans of the architect Daniel Renard. Between 1985 and 1987 the building was completely refurbished and the furniture was entirely changed.
Roman mosaic edifice
Address: 12 Ovidiu Square
It’s the most precious architectural complex ever discovered. The exact date of its construction is unknown, but it is said that it was erected around the end of the 2nd century A.D., after which is was gradually changed and enlarged. The fact is that the “paving” was performed in the 4th century, and the entire assembly, with successive repairs, was operational until the beginning of the 7th century.
Here there used to be residential rooms, repositories and workshops. A part of the repositories is currently under sea water; in the past, they were located in front of the wharfs of the ancient harbor Tomis.
You can admire the collections of anchors, ingots, weight sets, amphorae with paints and resins, statues, of rush candles, marble plates, polychrome mosaic, pilaster ends.
Address: 1 Elisabeta Boulevard
Founded on the 1st of May 1958, the Aquarium was arranged in a building older than 90 years, designed by the architect Bernovschi. Over half a million people visit it each year to admire its more than 130 species of indigenous and exotic marine and sweet water fish. Here is found the richest collection of sturgeons in the world.
Address: 255 Mamaia Boulevard
The Dolphin Aquarium of Constanta was inaugurated in 1972. Here were organized demonstrations with dolphins originating from the Black Sea – the Porpoise, the Common Dolphin and the Afalin (Tursiops truncatus) – as well as with seals brought from the South Atlantic.
In Constanta, there are also many museums worth visiting: the Popular Art Museum, the National History and Archeology Museum, the Sea Museum, the Romanian Marine Museum, the Constanta Harbor Museum, the Sculpture Museum, the Astronomic Observatory and the Planetarium.